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Int J Mol Sci 2022 Nov 01;2321:. doi: 10.3390/ijms232113335.
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Bmp4 Synexpression Gene, Sizzled, Transcription Is Collectively Modulated by Smad1 and Ventx1.1/Ventx2.1 in Early Xenopus Embryos.

Rehman ZU , Tayyaba F , Lee U , Kim J .

Sizzled (Szl) is a secreted frizzled protein, having a sequence homology with the extracellular cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of the Wnt receptor, 'Frizzled'. Contrary to the other secreted frizzled like proteins (Sfrps), szl belongs to the bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) synexpression group and is tightly coexpressed with Bmp4. What is not known is how the szl transcription achieves its Bmp4 synexpression pattern. To address the molecular details of szl transcription control, we cloned a promoter of size 1566 base pairs for szl (bps) from the Xenopus laevis genomic DNA. Luciferase and eGFP reporter gene results of this szl promoter (-1566 bp) in its activation and repression patterns by Bmp4/Smad1 and a dominant negative Bmp4 receptor (DNBR) were similar to those of the endogenous szl expression. Reporter gene assays and site-directed mutagenesis of the szl promoter mapped an active Bmp4/Smad1 response element (BRE) and a cis-acting element, which competitively share a direct binding site for Ventx1.1 and Ventx2.1 (a Ventx response element, VRE). Smad1 and ventx2.1 alone increased szl promoter activity; in addition, the binding of each protein component was enhanced with their coexpression. Interestingly, Ventx1.1 repressed this reporter gene activity; however, Ventx1.1 and Ventx2.1 together positively regulated the szl promoter activity. From our analysis, Ventx2.1 binding was enhanced by Ventx1.1, but Ventx1.1 inhibitory binding was inhibited by co-injection of Ventx2.1 for the VRE site. The inhibitory Ventx1.1 co-injection decreased Smad1 binding on the szl promoter. In a triple combination of overexpressed Smad1/Ventx1.1/Ventx2.1, the reduced binding of Smad1 from Ventx1.1 was recovered to that of the Smad1/Ventx2 combination. Collectively, this study provides evidence of Bmp4/Smad1 signaling for a primary immediate early response and its two oppositely behaving target transcription factors, Ventx1.1 and Ventx2.1, for a secondary response, as they together upregulate the szl promoter's activity to achieve szl expression in a Bmp4 synexpression manner.

PubMed ID: 36362118
PMC ID: PMC9654134
Article link: Int J Mol Sci
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: babam2 bambi bmp4 bmp7.1 foxd4l1.1 gata2 myc smad1 szl ventx1 ventx2 ventx2.2

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