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Dev Biol 2010 Jan 15;3372:335-50. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2009.11.008.
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BMP antagonists and FGF signaling contribute to different domains of the neural plate in Xenopus.

Wills AE , Choi VM , Bennett MJ , Khokha MK , Harland RM .

In ectodermal explants from Xenopus embryos, inhibition of BMP signaling is sufficient for neural induction, leading to the idea that neural fate is the default state in the ectoderm. Many of these experiments assayed the action of BMP antagonists on animal caps, which are relatively naïve explants of prospective ectoderm, and different results have led to debate regarding both the mechanism of neural induction and the appropriateness of animal caps as an assay system. Here we address whether BMP antagonists are only able to induce neural fates in pre-patterned explants, and the extent to which neural induction requires FGF signaling. We suggest that some discrepancies in conclusion depend on the interpretations of sox gene expression, which we show not only marks definitive neural tissue, but also tissue that is not yet committed to neural fates. Part of the early sox2 domain requires FGF signaling, but in the absence of organizer signaling, this domain reverts to epidermal fates. We also reinforce the evidence that ectodermal explants are naïve, and that explants that lack any dorsal prepattern are readily neuralized by BMP antagonists, even when FGF signaling is inhibited.

PubMed ID: 19913009
PMC ID: PMC2812634
Article link: Dev Biol
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: chrd egr2 en2 fgf8 fst gsc hes4 hoxb9 hoxc9-like krt12.4 mos ncam1 nkx2-1 nog nrp1 odc1 otx2 pax3 snai2 sox2 sox3 tbxt tubb2b zic2
Morpholinos: chrd.1 MO1 chrd.1 MO2 ctnnb1 MO1 fst MO1 nog MO1

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Bachiller, The organizer factors Chordin and Noggin are required for mouse forebrain development. 2000, Pubmed