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Dev Biol 2006 Jan 01;2891:166-78. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.10.022.
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Twisted gastrulation is required for forebrain specification and cooperates with Chordin to inhibit BMP signaling during X. tropicalis gastrulation.

In the developing vertebrate embryo, proper dorsal-ventral patterning relies on BMP antagonists secreted by the organizer during gastrulation. The BMP antagonist chordin has a complex interaction with BMPs that is governed in part by its interaction with the secreted protein twisted gastrulation (tsg). In different contexts, tsg has activity as either a BMP agonist or as a BMP antagonist. Using morpholino oligonucleotides in Xenopus tropicalis, we show that reducing tsg gene product results in a ventralized embryo, and that tsg morphants specifically lack a forebrain. We provide new evidence that tsg acts as a BMP antagonist during X. tropicalis gastrulation since the tsg depletion phenotype can be rescued in two ways: by chordin overexpression and by BMP depletion. We conclude that tsg acts as a BMP antagonist in the context of the frog gastrula, and that it acts cooperatively with chordin to establish dorsal structures and particularly forebrain tissue during development.

PubMed ID: 16321373
Article link: Dev Biol
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus tropicalis
Genes referenced: bambi bmp4 bmp7.1 cer1 chrd egr2 emx1l en2 eomes foxg1 fst gsc hoxb9 myf5 myod1 nkx2-1 nkx2-4 nodal3.1 otx2 sox2 szl twsg1 ventx2.2
Morpholinos: bmp4 MO4 bmp7.2 MO3 chrd.1 MO6 chrd.1 MO7 twsg1 MO3

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