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Dev Biol 2009 Mar 15;3272:478-86. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2008.12.034.
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Cell communication with the neural plate is required for induction of neural markers by BMP inhibition: evidence for homeogenetic induction and implications for Xenopus animal cap and chick explant assays.

Linker C , De Almeida I , Papanayotou C , Stower M , Sabado V , Ghorani E , Streit A , Mayor R , Stern CD .

In Xenopus, the animal cap is very sensitive to BMP antagonists, which result in neuralization. In chick, however, only cells at the border of the neural plate can be neuralized by BMP inhibition. Here we compare the two systems. BMP antagonists can induce neural plate border markers in both ventral Xenopus epidermis and non-neural chick epiblast. However, BMP antagonism can only neuralize ectodermal cells when the BMP-inhibited cells form a continuous trail connecting them to the neural plate or its border, suggesting that homeogenetic neuralizing factors can only travel between BMP-inhibited cells. Xenopus animal cap explants contain cells fated to contribute to the neural plate border and even to the anterior neural plate, explaining why they are so easily neuralized by BMP-inhibition. Furthermore, chick explants isolated from embryonic epiblast behave like Xenopus animal caps and express border markers. We propose that the animal cap assay in Xenopus and explant assays in the chick are unsuitable for studying instructive signals in neural induction.

PubMed ID: 19162002
PMC ID: PMC2713608
Article link: Dev Biol
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: fgf4 fgf8 hes4 nodal pax3 smad6.2 snai2 sox2 sox3 tbxt tnfsf10 tubb

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Benchabane, GATA- and Smad1-dependent enhancers in the Smad7 gene differentially interpret bone morphogenetic protein concentrations. 2003, Pubmed