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BMC Dev Biol 2011 Jun 10;11:36. doi: 10.1186/1471-213X-11-36.
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PAPC and the Wnt5a/Ror2 pathway control the invagination of the otic placode in Xenopus.

Jung B , Köhler A , Schambony A , Wedlich D .

BACKGROUND: Paraxial protocadherin (PAPC) plays a crucial role in morphogenetic movements during gastrulation and somitogenesis in mouse, zebrafish and Xenopus. PAPC influences cell-cell adhesion mediated by C-Cadherin. A putative direct adhesion activity of PAPC is discussed. PAPC also promotes cell elongation, tissue separation and coordinates cell mass movements. In these processes the signaling function of PAPC in activating RhoA/JNK and supporting Wnt-11/PCP by binding to frizzled 7 (fz7) is important. RESULTS: Here we demonstrate by loss of function experiments in Xenopus embryos that PAPC regulates another type of morphogenetic movement, the invagination of the ear placode. Knockdown of PAPC by antisense morpholinos results in deformation of the otic vesicle without altering otocyst marker expression. Depletion of PAPC could be rescued by full-length PAPC, constitutive active RhoA and by the closely related PCNS but not by classical cadherins. Also the cytoplasmic deletion mutant M-PAPC, which influences cell adhesion, does not rescue the PAPC knockdown. Interestingly, depletion of Wnt5a or Ror2 which are also expressed in the otocyst phenocopies the PAPC morphant phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: PAPC signaling via RhoA and Wnt5a/Ror2 activity are required to keep cells aligned in apical-basal orientation during invagination of the ear placode. Since neither the cytoplasmic deletion mutant M-PAPC nor a classical cadherin is able to rescue loss of PAPC we suggest that the signaling function of the protocadherin rather than its role as modulator of cell-cell adhesion is required during invagination of the ear placode.

PubMed ID: 21663658
PMC ID: PMC3127988
Article link: BMC Dev Biol

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: cdh3 dvl1 dvl2 fn1 fzd7 gap43 hmx3 neurod1 pax2 pax8 pcdh8 pcdh8.2 pcdh8l prkci rac1 rhoa ror2 runx1 tbx1 tbx2 wnt5a
Antibodies: Cdh3 Ab1
Morpholinos: pcdh8.2 MO1 pcdh8.2 MO2 pcdh8.2 MO3 ror2 MO2 wnt5a MO1

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Barald, From placode to polarization: new tunes in inner ear development. 2004, Pubmed