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iScience 2021 Nov 19;2411:103281. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2021.103281.
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Bacterial lipopolysaccharides can initiate regeneration of the Xenopus tadpole tail.

Bishop TF , Beck CW .

Tadpoles of the frog Xenopus laevis can regenerate tails except for a short "refractory" period in which they heal rather than regenerate. Rapid and sustained production of ROS by NADPH oxidase (Nox) is critical for regeneration. Here, we show that tail amputation results in rapid, transient activation of the ROS-activated transcription factor NF-κB and expression of its direct target cox2 in the wound epithelium. Activation of NF-κB is also sufficient to rescue refractory tail regeneration. We propose that bacteria on the tadpole's skin could influence tail regenerative outcomes, possibly via LPS-TLR4-NF-κB signaling. When raised in antibiotics, fewer tadpoles in the refractory stage attempted regeneration, whereas addition of LPS rescued regeneration. Short-term activation of NF-κB using small molecules enhanced regeneration of tadpole hindlimbs, but not froglet forelimbs. We propose a model in which host microbiome contributes to creating optimal conditions for regeneration, via regulation of NF-κB by the innate immune system.

PubMed ID: 34765912
Article link: iScience

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: cybb dspp hpse nox1 nox4 pax7 ptgs2 rela
GO keywords: regeneration [+]
Antibodies: Digoxigenin AB1 NFkB Ab1

Article Images: [+] show captions