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J Dev Biol 2023 Jul 03;113:. doi: 10.3390/jdb11030031.
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Patterning of the Vertebrate Head in Time and Space by BMP Signaling.

Zhu K , Spaink HP , Durston AJ .

How head patterning is regulated in vertebrates is yet to be understood. In this study, we show that frog embryos injected with Noggin at different blastula and gastrula stages had their head development sequentially arrested at different positions. When timed BMP inhibition was applied to BMP-overexpressing embryos, the expression of five genes: xcg-1 (a marker of the cement gland, which is the front-most structure in the frog embryo), six3 (a forebrain marker), otx2 (a forebrain and mid-brain marker), gbx2 (an anterior hindbrain marker), and hoxd1 (a posterior hindbrain marker) were sequentially fixed. These results suggest that the vertebrate head is patterned from anterior to posterior in a progressive fashion and may involve timed actions of the BMP signaling.

PubMed ID: 37489332
PMC ID: PMC10366882
Article link: J Dev Biol

Species referenced: Xenopus Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: bmp4 gbx2.2 hoxd1 muc2 nog otx2 six3 smad6 smad6.2
GO keywords: embryo development ending in birth or egg hatching [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Alexandre, Ectopic expression of Hoxa-1 in the zebrafish alters the fate of the mandibular arch neural crest and phenocopies a retinoic acid-induced phenotype. 1996, Pubmed