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Front Cell Dev Biol 2022 Jan 01;10:858272. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2022.858272.
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dmrt2 and myf5 Link Early Somitogenesis to Left-Right Axis Determination in Xenopus laevis.

Tingler M , Brugger A , Feistel K , Schweickert A .

The vertebrate left-right axis is specified during neurulation by events occurring in a transient ciliated epithelium termed left-right organizer (LRO), which is made up of two distinct cell types. In the axial midline, central LRO (cLRO) cells project motile monocilia and generate a leftward fluid flow, which represents the mechanism of symmetry breakage. This directional fluid flow is perceived by laterally positioned sensory LRO (sLRO) cells, which harbor non-motile cilia. In sLRO cells on the left side, flow-induced signaling triggers post-transcriptional repression of the multi-pathway antagonist dand5. Subsequently, the co-expressed Tgf-β growth factor Nodal1 is released from Dand5-mediated repression to induce left-sided gene expression. Interestingly, Xenopus sLRO cells have somitic fate, suggesting a connection between LR determination and somitogenesis. Here, we show that doublesex and mab3-related transcription factor 2 (Dmrt2), known to be involved in vertebrate somitogenesis, is required for LRO ciliogenesis and sLRO specification. In dmrt2 morphants, misexpression of the myogenic transcription factors tbx6 and myf5 at early gastrula stages preceded the misspecification of sLRO cells at neurula stages. myf5 morphant tadpoles also showed LR defects due to a failure of sLRO development. The gain of myf5 function reintroduced sLRO cells in dmrt2 morphants, demonstrating that paraxial patterning and somitogenesis are functionally linked to LR axis formation in Xenopus.

PubMed ID: 35813209
Article link: Front Cell Dev Biol

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: chrd dand5 dmrt2 foxj1 foxj1.2 gsc myf5 myod1 nodal nodal1 odc1 pitx2 slc35b1 sub1 tbx6 tubal3
GO keywords: somitogenesis
Morpholinos: dmrt2 MO1 myf5 MO1

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Aamar, Isolation and expression analysis of foxj1 and foxj1.2 in zebrafish embryos. 2008, Pubmed