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Dev Dyn 2022 Nov 01;25111:1880-1896. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.517.
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Gene expression analysis of the Xenopus laevis early limb bud proximodistal axis.

Hudson DT , Bromell JS , Day RC , McInnes T , Ward JM , Beck CW .

BACKGROUND: Limb buds develop as bilateral outgrowths of the lateral plate mesoderm and are patterned along three axes. Current models of proximal to distal patterning of early amniote limb buds suggest that two signals, a distal organizing signal from the apical epithelial ridge (AER, Fgfs) and an opposing proximal (retinoic acid [RA]) act early on pattern this axis. RESULTS: Transcriptional analysis of stage 51 Xenopus laevis hindlimb buds sectioned along the proximal-distal axis showed that the distal region is distinct from the rest of the limb. Expression of capn8.3, a novel calpain, was located in cells immediately flanking the AER. The Wnt antagonist Dkk1 was AER-specific in Xenopus limbs. Two transcription factors, sall1 and zic5, were expressed in distal mesenchyme. Zic5 has no described association with limb development. We also describe expression of two proximal genes, gata5 and tnn, not previously associated with limb development. Differentially expressed genes were associated with Fgf, Wnt, and RA signaling as well as differential cell adhesion and proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: We identify new candidate genes for early proximodistal limb patterning. Our analysis of RA-regulated genes supports a role for transient RA gradients in early limb bud in proximal-to-distal patterning in this anamniote model organism.

PubMed ID: 35809036
PMC ID: PMC9796579
Article link: Dev Dyn

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: aldh1a2 anos1 apcdd1l b3gnt7 capn8.3 col6a6 cyp26b1 dhrs3 dkk1 dner ednra epha7 fam83c fgf8 fibin flrt2 gata5 hoxa13 htra3 irx5 lhx2 lhx9 lmo1 meis1 msx2 pamr1 papln pbx1 rbp1 rbpms rgs18 rgs2 rhbg rnd3 sall1 serpinf1 spry1 sptbn1 sytl2 tll2 tnn zic5
GO keywords: limb morphogenesis [+]

GEO Series: GSE179158: NCBI

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Ahn, BMPR-IA signaling is required for the formation of the apical ectodermal ridge and dorsal-ventral patterning of the limb. 2001, Pubmed