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Dev Dyn 2016 Mar 01;2453:233-43. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.24351.
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Xenopus Limb bud morphogenesis.

Keenan SR , Beck CW .

Xenopus laevis, the South African clawed frog, is a well-established model organism for the study of developmental biology and regeneration due to its many advantages for both classical and molecular studies of patterning and morphogenesis. While contemporary studies of limb development tend to focus on models developed from the study of chicken and mouse embryos, there are also many classical studies of limb development in frogs. These include both fate and specification maps, that, due to their age, are perhaps not as widely known or cited as they should be. This has led to some inevitable misinterpretations- for example, it is often said that Xenopus limb buds have no apical ectodermal ridge, a morphological signalling centre located at the distal dorsal/ventral epithelial boundary and known to regulate limb bud outgrowth. These studies are valuable both from an evolutionary perspective, because amphibians diverged early from the amniote lineage, and from a developmental perspective, as amphibian limbs are capable of regeneration. Here, we describe Xenopus limb morphogenesis with reference to both classical and molecular studies, to create a clearer picture of what we know, and what is still mysterious, about this process.

PubMed ID: 26404044
Article link: Dev Dyn

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: aldh1a2 cyp26a1 cyp26b1 fgf8 gdf5 itk kcnt1 lbx1 lmx1b.1 lmx1b.2 shh sox9 tbx2 zp2

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