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Genesis 2019 Jul 01;577-8:e23296. doi: 10.1002/dvg.23296.
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What are the roles of retinoids, other morphogens, and Hox genes in setting up the vertebrate body axis?

This article is concerned with the roles of retinoids and other known anterior-posterior morphogens in setting up the embryonic vertebrate anterior-posterior axis. The discussion is restricted to the very earliest events in setting up the anterior-posterior axis (from blastula to tailbud stages in Xenopus embryos). In these earliest developmental stages, morphogen concentration gradients are not relevant for setting up this axis. It emerges that at these stages, the core patterning mechanism is timing: BMP-anti BMP mediated time space translation that regulates Hox temporal and spatial collinearities and Hox-Hox auto- and cross- regulation. The known anterior-posterior morphogens and signaling pathways--retinoids, FGF's, Cdx, Wnts, Gdf11 and others--interact with this core mechanism at and after space-time defined "decision points," leading to the separation of distinct axial domains. There are also other roles for signaling pathways. Besides the Hox regulated hindbrain/trunk part of the axis, there is a rostral part (including the anterior part of the head and the extreme anterior domain [EAD]) that appears to be regulated by additional mechanisms. Key aspects of anterior-posterior axial patterning, including: the nature of different phases in early patterning and in the whole process; the specificities of Hox action and of intercellular signaling; and the mechanisms of Hox temporal and spatial collinearities, are discussed in relation to the facts and hypotheses proposed above.

PubMed ID: 31021058
PMC ID: PMC6767176
Article link: Genesis

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: birc6 clock gbx1 gbx2 gbx2.2 gdf11.2 hoxa11 hoxa7 hoxb4 hoxb5 hoxb7 hoxb8 hoxb9 hoxc10 hoxc12 hoxc6 hoxd1 hoxd10 hoxd13 hoxd4 muc2 nog otx2 six3 tst
GO keywords: axis specification [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Arnone, The hardwiring of development: organization and function of genomic regulatory systems. 1997, Pubmed