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Dev Biol 2017 Jun 15;4262:429-441. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2016.05.014.
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Identification of new regulators of embryonic patterning and morphogenesis in Xenopus gastrulae by RNA sequencing.

Popov IK , Kwon T , Crossman DK , Crowley MR , Wallingford JB , Chang C .

During early vertebrate embryogenesis, cell fate specification is often coupled with cell acquisition of specific adhesive, polar and/or motile behaviors. In Xenopus gastrulae, tissues fated to form different axial structures display distinct motility. The cells in the early organizer move collectively and directionally toward the animal pole and contribute to anterior mesendoderm, whereas the dorsal and the ventral-posterior trunk tissues surrounding the blastopore of mid-gastrula embryos undergo convergent extension and convergent thickening movements, respectively. While factors regulating cell lineage specification have been described in some detail, the molecular machinery that controls cell motility is not understood in depth. To gain insight into the gene battery that regulates both cell fates and motility in particular embryonic tissues, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to investigate differentially expressed genes in the early organizer, the dorsal and the ventral marginal zone of Xenopus gastrulae. We uncovered many known signaling and transcription factors that have been reported to play roles in embryonic patterning during gastrulation. We also identified many uncharacterized genes as well as genes that encoded extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins or potential regulators of actin cytoskeleton. Co-expression of a selected subset of the differentially expressed genes with activin in animal caps revealed that they had distinct ability to block activin-induced animal cap elongation. Most of these factors did not interfere with mesodermal induction by activin, but an ECM protein, EFEMP2, inhibited activin signaling and acted downstream of the activated type I receptor. By focusing on a secreted protein kinase PKDCC1, we showed with overexpression and knockdown experiments that PKDCC1 regulated gastrulation movements as well as anterior neural patterning during early Xenopus development. Overall, our studies identify many differentially expressed signaling and cytoskeleton regulators in different embryonic regions of Xenopus gastrulae and imply their functions in regulating cell fates and/or behaviors during gastrulation.

PubMed ID: 27209239
PMC ID: PMC5116012
Article link: Dev Biol
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: abl2 acod1 acta4 acvr1b arhgef3.1 arhgef3.2 atf3 btg2 casp6 cass4 cdc42ep2 cdc42ep3 cdc42se2 cer1 chd2 chrd.1 cited2 col2a1 diras2 dlx1 dlx2 dlx3 dlx4 dlx5 dlx6 dmbx1 dscaml1 dzank1 efemp2 efhc1 en2 fat1 fbxw4 fgd5 fhdc1 filip1 fn1 fos fst gask1b gata4 gprc5cl1 gprc5cl2 gsc hoxb9 hoxc9-like junb kalrn kif13a klf10 lpar5 lrp8 mmp14 msx1 msx2 myod1 nodal3.1 optn otx2 pkdcc.1 pkdcc.2 plekhg5 pskh2 rab34 ralgps2 rasl11b rnf220 rnf220.2 satb2 serpinh1 shh sia1 smad2 sox2 sparc szl tbxt tlcd3a tlr5 trim2 trim29 ube2ql1 vamp5 ventx1 ventx1.2 ventx2 ventx2.2 ventx3 ventx3.2 zc4h2
Morpholinos: pkdcc.1 MO2

Phenotypes: Xla Wt + pkdcc.1 (fig.5.d) [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Altmann, Microarray-based analysis of early development in Xenopus laevis. 2001, Pubmed, Xenbase