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Dev Dyn 2015 Jan 01;2441:69-85. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.24180.
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A Molecular atlas of Xenopus respiratory system development.

Rankin SA , Thi Tran H , Wlizla M , Mancini P , Shifley ET , Bloor SD , Han L , Vleminckx K , Wert SE , Zorn AM .

BACKGROUND: Respiratory system development is regulated by a complex series of endoderm-mesoderm interactions that are not fully understood. Recently Xenopus has emerged as an alternative model to investigate early respiratory system development, but the extent to which the morphogenesis and molecular pathways involved are conserved between Xenopus and mammals has not been systematically documented. RESULTS: In this study, we provide a histological and molecular atlas of Xenopus respiratory system development, focusing on Nkx2.1+ respiratory cell fate specification in the developing foregut. We document the expression patterns of Wnt/β-catenin, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling components in the foregut and show that the molecular mechanisms of respiratory lineage induction are remarkably conserved between Xenopus and mice. Finally, using several functional experiments we refine the epistatic relationships among FGF, Wnt, and BMP signaling in early Xenopus respiratory system development. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that Xenopus trachea and lung development, before metamorphosis, is comparable at the cellular and molecular levels to embryonic stages of mouse respiratory system development between embryonic days 8.5 and 10.5. This molecular atlas provides a fundamental starting point for further studies using Xenopus as a model to define the conserved genetic programs controlling early respiratory system development.

PubMed ID: 25156440
PMC ID: PMC4276498
Article link: Dev Dyn
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: axin2l bmp2 bmp4 bmp7.1 bmp7.2 bmpr1a bmpr1b bmpr2 cartpt fcrl4 fgf10 fgf7 fgf9 fgfr1 fgfr2 fgfr4 fn1 foxa2 foxf1 fzd4 fzd7 lama1 lef1 lrp5 lrp6 mapk1 nkx2-1 rspo1 rspo2 rspo3 sftpc shh sox2 sox9 tcf3 tcf4 tcf7 tcf7l1 tp63 ubb vcan wnt2 wnt2b
Antibodies: Cspg4 Ab1 Fgfr1 Ab1 Fn1 Ab1 Foxf1 Ab1 Lama1 Ab1 Mapk1 Ab1 Nkx2-1 Ab3 Nkx2-1 Ab4 Sdc2 Ab1 Smad1 Ab7 Sox2 Ab1 Tp63 Ab2
Morpholinos: wnt2 MO1

Phenotypes: Xla Wt + DMH-1 (fig.10.j) [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Arman, Fgfr2 is required for limb outgrowth and lung-branching morphogenesis. 1999, Pubmed