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Biol Open 2013 Dec 15;212:1324-35. doi: 10.1242/bio.20133772.
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Plasticity of lung development in the amphibian, Xenopus laevis.

Rose CS , James B .

Contrary to previous studies, we found that Xenopus laevis tadpoles raised in normoxic water without access to air can routinely complete metamorphosis with lungs that are either severely stunted and uninflated or absent altogether. This is the first demonstration that lung development in a tetrapod can be inhibited by environmental factors and that a tetrapod that relies significantly on lung respiration under unstressed conditions can be raised to forego this function without adverse effects. This study compared lung development in untreated, air-deprived (AD) and air-restored (AR) tadpoles and frogs using whole mounts, histology, BrdU labeling of cell division and antibody staining of smooth muscle actin. We also examined the relationship of swimming and breathing behaviors to lung recovery in AR animals. Inhibition and recovery of lung development occurred at the stage of lung inflation. Lung recovery in AR tadpoles occurred at a predictable and rapid rate and correlated with changes in swimming and breathing behavior. It thus presents a new experimental model for investigating the role of mechanical forces in lung development. Lung recovery in AR frogs was unpredictable and did not correlate with behavioral changes. Its low frequency of occurrence could be attributed to developmental, physical and behavioral changes, the effects of which increase with size and age. Plasticity of lung inflation at tadpole stages and loss of plasticity at postmetamorphic stages offer new insights into the role of developmental plasticity in amphibian lung loss and life history evolution.

PubMed ID: 24337117
PMC ID: PMC3863417
Article link: Biol Open

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: acta2 acta4 actc1 actl6a

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Barja de Quiroga, Hyperoxia decreases lung size of amphibian tadpoles without changing GSH-peroxidases or tissue peroxidation. 1989, Pubmed