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Dev Biol 2014 Aug 15;3922:358-67. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2014.05.008.
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Gtpbp2 is required for BMP signaling and mesoderm patterning in Xenopus embryos.

Kirmizitas A , Gillis WQ , Zhu H , Thomsen GH .

Smad proteins convey canonical intracellular signals for activated receptors in the TGFβ superfamily, but the activity of Smads and their impact on target genes are further regulated by a wide variety of cofactors and partner proteins. We have identified a new Smad1 partner, a GTPase named Gtpbp2 that is a distant relative of the translation factor eEf1a. Gtpbp2 affects canonical signaling in the BMP branch of the TGFβ superfamily, as morpholino knockdown of Gtpbp2 decreases, and overexpression of Gtpbp2 enhances, animal cap responses to BMP4. During Xenopus development, gtpbp2 transcripts are maternally expressed and localized to the egg animal pole, and partitioned into the nascent ectodermal and mesodermal cells during cleavage and early gastrulation stages. Subsequently, gtpbp2 is expressed in the neural folds, and in early tadpoles undergoing organogenesis gtpbp2 is expressed prominently in the brain, eyes, somites, ventral blood island and branchial arches. Consistent with its expression, morpholino knockdown of Gtpbp2 causes defects in ventral-posterior germ layer patterning, gastrulation and tadpole morphology. Overexpressed Gtpbp2 can induce ventral-posterior marker genes and localize to cell nuclei in Xenopus animal caps, highlighting its role in regulating BMP signaling in the early embryo. Here, we introduce this large GTPase as a novel factor in BMP signaling and ventral-posterior patterning.

PubMed ID: 24858484
PMC ID: PMC4627492
Article link: Dev Biol
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: bmp4 bmpr1a evx1 fn1 gtpbp1 gtpbp2 inhba mix1 mixer myc myod1 nodal odc1 post smad1 smad10 smad2 smad3 smad4 smurf1 sox17a ventx1 ventx1.2 ventx2.2 wnt8a
Morpholinos: gtpbp2 MO1 gtpbp2 MO2

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Agius, Endodermal Nodal-related signals and mesoderm induction in Xenopus. 2000, Pubmed, Xenbase