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Development 2012 Mar 01;1396:1213-24. doi: 10.1242/dev.071456.
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RIPPLY3 is a retinoic acid-inducible repressor required for setting the borders of the pre-placodal ectoderm.

Janesick A , Shiotsugu J , Taketani M , Blumberg B .

Retinoic acid signaling is a major component of the neural posteriorizing process in vertebrate development. Here, we identify a new role for the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) in the anterior of the embryo, where RAR regulates Fgf8 expression and formation of the pre-placodal ectoderm (PPE). RARα2 signaling induces key pre-placodal genes and establishes the posterolateral borders of the PPE. RAR signaling upregulates two important genes, Tbx1 and Ripply3, during early PPE development. In the absence of RIPPLY3, TBX1 is required for the expression of Fgf8 and hence, PPE formation. In the presence of RIPPLY3, TBX1 acts as a transcriptional repressor, and functions to restrict the positional expression of Fgf8, a key regulator of PPE gene expression. These results establish a novel role for RAR as a regulator of spatial patterning of the PPE through Tbx1 and RIPPLY3. Moreover, we demonstrate that Ripply3, acting downstream of RAR signaling, is a key player in establishing boundaries in the PPE.

PubMed ID: 22354841
PMC ID: PMC3283127
Article link: Development
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: eya1 fgf8 frzb2 psmd6 rab40b ripply3 six1 sox9 tbx1
Morpholinos: rara MO2 ripply3 MO1 ripply3 MO2 tbx1 MO1 tbx1 MO2

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Ahrens, Tissues and signals involved in the induction of placodal Six1 expression in Xenopus laevis. 2005, Pubmed, Xenbase