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Mech Dev 2007 Aug 01;1247-8:518-31. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2007.06.003.
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Retinoic acid-mediated patterning of the pre-pancreatic endoderm in Xenopus operates via direct and indirect mechanisms.

Pan FC , Chen Y , Bayha E , Pieler T .

Early patterning of the endoderm as a prerequisite for pancreas specification involves retinoic acid (RA) as a critical signalling molecule in gastrula stage Xenopus embryos. In extension of our previous studies, we made systematic use of early embryonic endodermal and mesodermal explants. We find RA to be sufficient to induce pancreas-specific gene expression in dorsal but not ventral endoderm. The differential expression of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) in gastrula stage endoderm is important for the distinct responsiveness of dorsal versus ventral explants. Furthermore, BMP signalling, that is repressed dorsally, prevents the formation of pancreatic precursor cells in the ventral endoderm of gastrula stage Xenopus embryos. An additional requirement for mesoderm suggests the production of one or more further pancreas inducing signals by this tissue. Finally, recombination of manipulated early embryonic explants, and also inhibition of RA activity in whole embryos, reveal that RA signalling, as it is relevant for pancreas development, operates simultaneously on both mesodermal and endodermal germ layers.

PubMed ID: 17643968
Article link: Mech Dev

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: gal.2 hhex ins mixer pdia2 pdx1 ptf1a tbxt

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