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Mech Dev 2009 Jan 01;1263-4:240-55. doi: 10.1016/j.mod.2008.10.010.
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Xenopus ADAM19 is involved in neural, neural crest and muscle development.

Neuner R , Cousin H , McCusker C , Coyne M , Alfandari D .

ADAM19 is a member of the meltrin subfamily of ADAM metalloproteases. In Xenopus, ADAM19 is present as a maternal transcript. Zygotic expression starts during gastrulation and is apparent in the dorsal blastopore lip. ADAM19 expression through neurulation and tailbud formation becomes enriched in dorsal structures such as the neural tube, the notochord and the somites. Using morpholino knock-down, we show that a reduction of ADAM19 protein in gastrula stage embryos results in a decrease of Brachyury expression in the notochord concomitant with an increase in the dorsal markers, Goosecoid and Chordin. These changes in gene expression are accompanied by a decrease in phosphorylated AKT, a downstream target of the EGF signaling pathway, and occur while the blastopore closes at the same rate as the control embryos. During neurulation and tailbud formation, ADAM19 knock-down induces a reduction of the neural markers N-tubulin and NRP1 but not Sox2. In the somitic mesoderm, the expression of MLC is also decreased while MyoD is not. ADAM19 knockdown also reduces neural crest markers prior to cell migration. Neural crest induction is also decreased in embryos treated with an EGF receptor inhibitor suggesting that this pathway is necessary for neural crest cell induction. Using targeted knock-down of ADAM19 we show that the reduction of neural and neural crest markers is cell autonomous and that the migration if the cranial neural crest is perturbed. We further show that ADAM19 protein reduction affects somite organization, reduces 12-101 expression and perturbs fibronectin localization at the intersomitic boundary.

PubMed ID: 19027850
PMC ID: PMC2754070
Article link: Mech Dev
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: adam11 adam13 adam19 akt1 chrd egf fn1 gal.2 gsc mlc1 myc myl1 myod1 nrp1 pacsin2 snai2 sox2 sox8 tbxt tubb2b twist1
Antibodies: Itgb1 Ab1 Pacsin2 Ab1 adam19 AB1
Morpholinos: adam19 MO2

Phenotypes: Xla Wt + adam19 MO (fig.5.a) [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Alfandari, ADAM 13: a novel ADAM expressed in somitic mesoderm and neural crest cells during Xenopus laevis development. 1997, Pubmed, Xenbase