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Dev Biol 2006 Oct 01;2981:188-200. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2006.06.028.
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Xapelin and Xmsr are required for cardiovascular development in Xenopus laevis.

Inui M , Fukui A , Ito Y , Asashima M .

The cardiovascular development is the elaborate process, and despite the extensive studies, the mechanisms underlying endothelial, hematopoietic, and cardiac developments, as well as the interrelation between these processes, are not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that Xenopus apelin and Xmsr play pivotal roles in cardiovascular development. Apelin is a recently identified ligand for an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor APJ and is involved in fluid homeostasis in mammals. Xenopus preproapelin (Xpreproapelin) was isolated and its mRNA localized to the region around the presumptive blood vessels, which are overlapping or adjacent to those expressing Xmsr, the Xenopus homologue of APJ. Overexpression of Xpreproapelin disorganized the expression of the endothelial precursor cell marker XlFli and the hematopoietic precursor cell marker SCL at the neurula, whereas embryos injected with morpholino antisense oligonucleotides for Xapelin and Xmsr displayed attenuated expression of Tie2, alpha-globin, XPOX2, and cTnI, markers of endothelium, erythrocytes, myeloid cells, and cardiomyocytes, respectively. XlFli morpholino had similar effects to Xapelin and Xmsr morpholinos on cardiac differentiation, suggesting an unexpected potential relationship between the endothelium and cardiac differentiation. Forced expression of constitutive active G alpha i rescued the phenotypes of Xmsr morpholino-injected embryos, indicating that the i/o type of G protein alpha subunit acts downstream of Xmsr.

PubMed ID: 16876154
Article link: Dev Biol

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: apln aplnr cfd fli1 hba1 mpo nkx2-5 tal1 tek tnni3
Morpholinos: apln MO1 aplnr MO4 fli1 MO1

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