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J Cell Biol 2002 Apr 29;1573:357-66. doi: 10.1083/jcb.200109045.
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Human Speedy: a novel cell cycle regulator that enhances proliferation through activation of Cdk2.

Porter LA , Dellinger RW , Tynan JA , Barnes EA , Kong M , Lenormand JL , Donoghue DJ .

The decision for a cell to self-replicate requires passage from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle and initiation of another round of DNA replication. This commitment is a critical one that is tightly regulated by many parallel pathways. Significantly, these pathways converge to result in activation of the cyclin-dependent kinase, cdk2. It is, therefore, important to understand all the mechanisms regulating cdk2 to determine the molecular basis of cell progression. Here we report the identification and characterization of a novel cell cycle gene, designated Speedy (Spy1). Spy1 is 40% homologous to the Xenopus cell cycle gene, X-Spy1. Similar to its Xenopus counterpart, human Speedy is able to induce oocyte maturation, suggesting similar biological characteristics. Spy1 mRNA is expressed in several human tissues and immortalized cell lines and is only expressed during the G1/S phase of the cell cycle. Overexpression of Spy1 protein demonstrates that Spy1 is nuclear and results in enhanced cell proliferation. In addition, flow cytometry profiles of these cells demonstrate a reduction in G1 population. Changes in cell cycle regulation can be attributed to the ability of Spy1 to bind to and prematurely activate cdk2 independent of cyclin binding. We demonstrate that Spy1-enhanced cell proliferation is dependent on cdk2 activation. Furthermore, abrogation of Spy1 expression, through the use of siRNA, demonstrates that Spy1 is an essential component of cell proliferation pathways. Hence, human Speedy is a novel cell cycle protein capable of promoting cell proliferation through the premature activation of cdk2 at the G1/S phase transition.

PubMed ID: 11980914
PMC ID: PMC2173287
Article link: J Cell Biol
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: cdk1 cdk2 isyna1 myc spdya

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References [+] :
Bartek, The retinoblastoma protein pathway and the restriction point. 1997, Pubmed