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Development 2002 Jun 01;12912:2823-34. doi: 10.1242/dev.129.12.2823.
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A novel Xenopus Smad-interacting forkhead transcription factor (XFast-3) cooperates with XFast-1 in regulating gastrulation movements.

Howell M , Inman GJ , Hill CS .

In early Xenopus embryos, the prototypical XFast-1/Smad2/Smad4 complex ARF1 is induced at the Mix.2 ARE by activin overexpression. We have characterised ARF2, a related, but much more abundant, complex formed during gastrulation in response to endogenous TGFbeta family members and we have identified a novel Fast family member, XFast-3, as its transcription factor component. Endogenous ARF2 efficiently competes out ARF1 at early gastrulation, due to the ability of XFast-3 to interact with activated Smads with much higher affinity than XFast-1. We demonstrate that ARF1 and ARF2 are activated by distinct TGFbeta family members. Using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides to deplete levels of the constituent transcription factors XFast-1 and XFast-3 specifically, we demonstrate an important role for ARF1 and ARF2 in early Xenopus embryos in controlling the convergent extension movements of gastrulation.

PubMed ID: 12050132
Article link: Development

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: arf1 arf4 dll1 foxa4 foxh1 foxh1.2 mt-tr shh smad10 smad4 tbxt tgfb1 trna
Morpholinos: foxh1 MO1 foxh1.2 MO1

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