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Gene 2002 Jul 24;2951:79-88. doi: 10.1016/s0378-1119(02)00823-5.
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Genomic organization of the human mi-er1 gene and characterization of alternatively spliced isoforms: regulated use of a facultative intron determines subcellular localization.

Paterno GD , Ding Z , Lew YY , Nash GW , Mercer FC , Gillespie LL .

mi-er1 (previously called er1) is a fibroblast growth factor-inducible early response gene activated during mesoderm induction in Xenopus embryos and encoding a nuclear protein that functions as a transcriptional activator. The human orthologue of mi-er1 was shown to be upregulated in breast carcinoma cell lines and breast tumours when compared to normal breast cells. In this report, we investigate the structure of the human mi-er1 (hmi-er1) gene and characterize the alternatively spliced transcripts and protein isoforms. hmi-er1 is a single copy gene located at 1p31.2 and spanning 63 kb. It contains 17 exons and includes one skipped exon, a facultative intron and three polyadenylation signals to produce 12 transcripts encoding six distinct proteins. hmi-er1 transcripts were expressed at very low levels in most human adult tissues and the mRNA isoform pattern varied with the tissue. The 12 transcripts encode proteins containing a common internal sequence with variable N- and C-termini. Three distinct N- and two distinct C-termini were identified, giving rise to six protein isoforms. The two C-termini differ significantly in size and sequence and arise from alternate use of a facultative intron to produce hMI-ER1alpha and hMI-ER1beta. In all tissues except testis, transcripts encoding the beta isoform were predominant. hMI-ER1alpha lacks the predicted nuclear localization signal and transfection assays revealed that, unlike hMI-ER1beta, it is not a nuclear protein, but remains in the cytoplasm. Our results demonstrate that alternate use of a facultative intron regulates the subcellular localization of hMI-ER1 proteins and this may have important implications for hMI-ER1 function.

PubMed ID: 12242014
Article link: Gene

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: mier1