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Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2024 Apr 09;703:149565. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2024.149565.
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Ibuprofen-induced multiorgan malformation during embryogenesis in Xenopus laevis (FETAX).

Park MJ , Chae JP , Woo D , Kim JY , Bae YC , Lee JY , Lee SY , Nam EJ , Nam SW .

Ibuprofen, one of the most commonly prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, has not been fully assessed for embryonic toxicity in vertebrates. Here, we systematically assessed the embryotoxicity of ibuprofen in Xenopus laevis at various concentrations during embryogenesis. Embryos were treated with different concentrations of ibuprofen, ranging from 8 to 64 mg/L, at 23 °C for 96 h, and examined daily and evaluated at 72 hpf. Lethal or teratogenic effects were documented. For histological analysis, paraffin embedded embryos were transversely sectioned at a thickness of 10-μm and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Total RNA was isolated from embryos at stages 6, 12, 22 and 36, and real-time quantitative PCR was performed. Ibuprofen-treated embryos showed delayed or failed dorsal lip formation and its closure at the beginning of gastrulation. This resulted in herniation of the endodermal mass after gastrulation under high concentrations of ibuprofen-treated embryos. Underdeveloped intestines with stage and/or intestinal malrotation, distorted microcephaly, and hypoplastic heart, lungs, and pronephric tubules were observed in ibuprofen-treated embryos. Cephalic, cardiac, and truncal edema were also observed in them. The severity of the deformities was observed in a concentration-dependent manner. The teratogenic index was 2.28. These gross and histological disruptions correlated well with the altered expression of each organ marker gene. In conclusion, ibuprofen induced delayed and disrupted gastrulation in the early developmental stage and multiorgan malformation later in the organogenesis stage of Xenopus laevis embryos.

PubMed ID: 38377940
Article link: Biochem Biophys Res Commun

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis

Disease Ontology terms: inflammatory bowel disease [+]