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Dev Biol 2024 Feb 01;506:20-30. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2023.11.009.
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In vitro modeling of cranial placode differentiation: Recent advances, challenges, and perspectives.

Griffin C , Saint-Jeannet JP .

Cranial placodes are transient ectodermal thickenings that contribute to a diverse array of organs in the vertebrate head. They develop from a common territory, the pre-placodal region that over time segregates along the antero-posterior axis into individual placodal domains: the adenohypophyseal, olfactory, lens, trigeminal, otic, and epibranchial placodes. These placodes terminally differentiate into the anterior pituitary, the lens, and contribute to sensory organs including the olfactory epithelium, and inner ear, as well as several cranial ganglia. To study cranial placodes and their derivatives and generate cells for therapeutic purposes, several groups have turned to in vitro derivation of placodal cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). In this review, we summarize the signaling cues and mechanisms involved in cranial placode induction, specification, and differentiation in vivo, and discuss how this knowledge has informed protocols to derive cranial placodes in vitro. We also discuss the benefits and limitations of these protocols, and the potential of in vitro cranial placode modeling in regenerative medicine to treat cranial placode-related pathologies.

PubMed ID: 38052294
PMC ID: PMC10843546
Article link: Dev Biol
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus tropicalis Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: ascl1 cdh1 cdh2 dach1 dkk1 dlx3 dlx5 emx2 eya1 foxe3 foxg1 hes1 lhx3 lhx4 msx1 msx2 nes neurog1 nrl otx2 pax3 pax6 pax8 pitx1 pitx2 pitx3 pou2f1 prop1 prox1 six1 six3 six4 six6 sox1 sox2 tfap2a
GO keywords: ectodermal cell differentiation [+]