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PLoS One 2023 Jan 01;188:e0290892. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0290892.
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Biochemical evidence that the whole compartment activity behavior of GAPDH differs between the cytoplasm and nucleus.

Tang HS , Gates CR , Schultz MC .

Some metabolic enzymes normally occur in the nucleus and cytoplasm. These compartments differ in molecular composition. Since post-translational modification and interaction with allosteric effectors can tune enzyme activity, it follows that the behavior of an enzyme as a catalyst may differ between the cytoplasm and nucleus. We explored this possibility for the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Homogenates of pristine nuclei and cytoplasms isolated from Xenopus laevis oocytes were used for whole compartment activity profiling in a near-physiological buffer. Titrations of NAD+ revealed similar whole compartment activity profiles for GAPDH in nuclear and cytoplasmic homogenates. Surprisingly however GAPDH in these compartments did not have the same behavior in assays of the dependence of initial velocity (v0) on G3P concentration. First, the peak v0 for nuclear GAPDH was up to 2.5-fold higher than the peak for cytoplasmic GAPDH. Second, while Michaelis Menten-like behavior was observed in all assays of cytoplasm, the v0 versus [G3P] plots for nuclear GAPDH typically exhibited a non-Michaelis Menten (sigmoidal) profile. Apparent Km and Vmax (G3P) values for nuclear GAPDH activity were highly variable, even between replicates of the same sample. Possible sources of this variability include in vitro processing of a metabolite that allosterically regulates GAPDH, turnover of a post-translational modification of the enzyme, and fluctuation of the state of interaction of GAPDH with other proteins. Collectively these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the environment of the nucleus is distinct from the environment of the cytoplasm with regard to GAPDH activity and its modulation. This finding warrants further comparison of the regulation of nuclear and cytoplasmic GAPDH, as well as whole compartment activity profiling of other enzymes of metabolism with cytosolic and nuclear pools.

PubMed ID: 37651389
PMC ID: PMC10470895
Article link: PLoS One

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: atp6v1b2 eno1 g6pd gapdh gnao1 idh1 kit ldhb npm2 pfkp pgd psmd6 vit xpo1
GO keywords: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) (non-phosphorylating) activity

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References [+] :
Arch, Activities and some properties of 5'-nucleotidase, adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase in tissues from vertebrates and invertebrates in relation to the control of the concentration and the physiological role of adenosine. 1978, Pubmed