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BMC Genomics 2023 Mar 16;241:122. doi: 10.1186/s12864-023-09205-8.
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Unravelling the limb regeneration mechanisms of Polypedates maculatus, a sub-tropical frog, by transcriptomics.

Mahapatra C , Naik P , Swain SK , Mohapatra PP .

BACKGROUND: Regeneration studies help to understand the strategies that replace a lost or damaged organ and provide insights into approaches followed in regenerative medicine and engineering. Amphibians regenerate their limbs effortlessly and are indispensable models to study limb regeneration. Xenopus and axolotl are the key models for studying limb regeneration but recent studies on non-model amphibians have revealed species specific differences in regeneration mechanisms. RESULTS: The present study describes the de novo transcriptome of intact limbs and three-day post-amputation blastemas of tadpoles and froglets of the Asian tree frog Polypedates maculatus, a non-model amphibian species commonly found in India. Differential gene expression analysis between early tadpole and froglet limb blastemas discovered species-specific novel regulators of limb regeneration. The present study reports upregulation of proteoglycans, such as epiphycan, chondroadherin, hyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 1, collagens 2,5,6, 9 and 11, several tumour suppressors and methyltransferases in the P. maculatus tadpole blastemas. Differential gene expression analysis between tadpole and froglet limbs revealed that in addition to the expression of larval-specific haemoglobin and glycoproteins, an upregulation of cysteine and serine protease inhibitors and downregulation of serine proteases, antioxidants, collagenases and inflammatory genes in the tadpole limbs were essential for creating an environment that would support regeneration. Dermal myeloid cells were GAG+, EPYC+, INMT+, LEF1+ and SALL4+ and seemed to migrate from the unamputated regions of the tadpole limb to the blastema. On the other hand, the myeloid cells of the froglet limb blastemas were few and probably contributed to sustained inflammation resulting in healing. CONCLUSIONS: Studies on non-model amphibians give insights into alternate tactics for limb regeneration which can help devise a plethora of methods in regenerative medicine and engineering.

PubMed ID: 36927452
PMC ID: PMC10022135
Article link: BMC Genomics

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: chad col10a1 col11a1 col2a1 col5a1 col6a1 col9a1 col9a2 col9a3 epyc hapln1 inmt lef1 mdk pnma2 sall4
GO keywords: extracellular matrix component [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Arenas Gómez, Using transcriptomics to enable a plethodontid salamander (Bolitoglossa ramosi) for limb regeneration research. 2018, Pubmed