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Dev Growth Differ 2023 Jan 01;651:29-36. doi: 10.1111/dgd.12828.
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maea affects head formation through ß-catenin degradation during early Xenopus laevis development.

Canonical Wnt signalling plays important roles in early embryogenesis, such as axis formation due to its activation and head formation due to its inhibition. ß-catenin protein stability is a key factor in canonical Wnt signalling. Several E3 ubiquitin ligases contribute to ß-catenin degradation through the ubiquitin/proteasome system. We characterised an E3 ubiquitin ligase gene, Xenopus laevis macrophage erythroblast attacher (maea), during early development. maea transcripts were ubiquitously detected in early embryos. The expression levels of the Wnt target genes nodal homolog 3, gene 1 (nodal3.1), and siamois homeodomain 1 (sia1), which were induced by injection with ß-catenin mRNA, were reduced by maea.S mRNA co-injection. maea.S overexpression at the anterior dorsal region enlarged head structures, whereas Maea knockdown interfered with head formation in Xenopus embryos. Maea.S decreased and ubiquitinated ß-catenin protein. ß-catenin-4KRs protein, which mutated the four lysine (K) residues known as ubiquitinated sites to arginine (R) residues, was also ubiquitinated and degraded by Maea.S. These findings suggest that Maea contributes to β-catenin degradation by ubiquitination of unknown lysine residues in early Xenopus development.

PubMed ID: 36444483
Article link: Dev Growth Differ

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: hbg1 maea myc nodal nodal3.1 odc1 sia1 sla
GO keywords: beta-catenin binding [+]
Antibodies: Nkx6-1 Ab1
Morpholinos: maea MO1

Phenotypes: Xla Wt + ctnnb1 (Fig. 3CD) [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions