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Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2022 Aug 01;258:109367. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2022.109367.
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Biochemical and osmoregulatory responses of the African clawed frog experimentally exposed to salt and pesticide.

Álvarez-Vergara F , Sanchez-Hernandez JC , Sabat P .

Salinization and pollution are two main environmental stressors leading deterioration to water quality and degradation of aquatic ecosystems. Amphibians are a highly sensitive group of vertebrates to environmental disturbance of aquatic ecosystems. However, studies on the combined effect of salinization and pollution on the physiology of amphibians are limited. In this study, we measured the standard metabolic rate (SMR) and biochemical parameters of adult males of the invasive frog Xenopus laevis after 45 days of exposure to contrasting salinity environments (400 and 150 mOsm NaCl) with either 1.0 μg/L of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) or pesticide-free medium. Our results revealed a decrease in SMR of animals exposed to the pesticide and in the ability to concentrate the plasma in animals exposed simultaneously to both stressors. The lack of ability to increase plasma concentration in animals exposed to both salt water and CPF, suggests that osmoregulatory response is decreased by pesticide exposure. In addition, we found an increase of liver citrate synthase activity in response to salt stress. Likewise, the liver acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity decreased by 50% in frogs exposed to salt water and CPF and 40% in those exposed only to CPF, which suggest an additive effect of salinity on inhibition of AChE. Finally, oxidative stress increased as shown by the higher lipid peroxidation and concentration of aqueous peroxides found in the group exposed to salt water and pesticide. Thus, our results revealed that X. laevis physiology is compromised by salinization and pesticide exposure to both environmental stressors join.

PubMed ID: 35569782
Article link: Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: ache nr5a2