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Viruses 2021 Nov 18;1311:. doi: 10.3390/v13112299.
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The Roles of Amphibian (Xenopus laevis) Macrophages during Chronic Frog Virus 3 Infections.

Hossainey MRH , Yaparla A , Hauser KA , Moore TE , Grayfer L .

Infections by Frog Virus 3 (FV3) and other ranavirus genus members are significantly contributing to global amphibian decline. The Xenopus laevis frog is an ideal research platform upon which to study the roles of distinct frog leukocyte populations during FV3 infections. Frog macrophages (MΦs) are integrally involved during FV3 infection, as they facilitate viral dissemination and persistence but also participate in immune defense against this pathogen. In turn, MΦ differentiation and functionality depend on the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R), which is ligated by CSF-1 and iterleukin-34 (IL-34) cytokines. Our past work indicated that X. laevis CSF-1 and IL-34 give rise to morphologically and functionally distinct frog MΦ subsets, and that these CSF-1- and IL-34-MΦs respectively confer susceptibility and antiviral resistance to FV3. Because FV3 targets the frog kidneys and establishes chronic infections therein, presently we examined the roles of the frog CSF-1- and IL-34-MΦs in seeding and maintaining these chronic kidney infections. Our findings indicate that the frog CSF-1-MΦs result in more prominent kidney FV3 infections, which develop into greater reservoirs of lingering FV3 marked by infiltrating leukocytes, fibrosis, and overall immunosuppressive states. Moreover, the antiviral effects of IL-34-MΦs are short-lived and are lost as FV3 infections progress.

PubMed ID: 34835105
Article link: Viruses
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: ccl20 ccl4 ccl5 cd4 cd8a ces3.4 csf1r csf3r ctrl cxcl10 cxcl12 cxcl13 cxcl14 cxcl8a cxcl8a.2 cxcl8b.2 fen1 foxp3 gapdh ifnl3.4 il10 tgfb1 tnf
GO keywords: immune response

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Bayley, Susceptibility of the European common frog Rana temporaria to a panel of ranavirus isolates from fish and amphibian hosts. 2013, Pubmed