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G3 (Bethesda) 2022 Jan 04;121:. doi: 10.1093/g3journal/jkab387.
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Temporal and spatial transcriptomic dynamics across brain development in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

Ta AC , Huang LC , McKeown CR , Bestman JE , Van Keuren-Jensen K , Cline HT .

Amphibian metamorphosis is a transitional period that involves significant changes in the cell-type populations and biological processes occurring in the brain. Analysis of gene expression dynamics during this process may provide insight into the molecular events underlying these changes. We conducted differential gene expression analyses of the developing Xenopus laevis tadpole brain during this period in two ways: first, over stages of the development in the midbrain and, second, across regions of the brain at a single developmental stage. We found that genes pertaining to positive regulation of neural progenitor cell proliferation as well as known progenitor cell markers were upregulated in the midbrain prior to metamorphic climax; concurrently, expression of cell cycle timing regulators decreased across this period, supporting the notion that cell cycle lengthening contributes to a decrease in proliferation by the end of metamorphosis. We also found that at the start of metamorphosis, neural progenitor populations appeared to be similar across the fore-, mid-, and hindbrain regions. Genes pertaining to negative regulation of differentiation were upregulated in the spinal cord compared to the rest of the brain, however, suggesting that different programs may regulate neurogenesis there. Finally, we found that regulation of biological processes like cell fate commitment and synaptic signaling follow similar trajectories in the brain across early tadpole metamorphosis and mid- to late-embryonic mouse development. By comparing expression across both temporal and spatial conditions, we have been able to illuminate cell-type and biological pathway dynamics in the brain during metamorphosis.

PubMed ID: 34751375
Article link: G3 (Bethesda)
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: ache aif1l ano2 ascl1 c1qa cdh1 cmtm5 col2a1 dbx1 egr2 emp2 enpp6 eomes epcam epha8 esr1 fgf1 foxa2 gad1.2 gad2 gal3st1 glra1 glul gpr17 grin2b grp hepacam hes1 hes3 hes5.1 hes5.2 hgf klf9 lmx1b.2 mbp mpz nefm nes neurod1 nkx2-8 nodal1 notch1 nr4a2 ocln olig3 omg otx1 otx2 phyhip pik3ca pnmt podn rbp3 rgs9 slc18a3 slc30a2 slc4a4 slc6a4 sod3 sox10 stmn1 tc2n th thy1 tnfaip8l3 tnfrsf8 tph1 tph2 vim
GO keywords: metamorphosis [+]

GEO Series: GSE183193: NCBI

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Akerman, Depolarizing GABAergic conductances regulate the balance of excitation to inhibition in the developing retinotectal circuit in vivo. 2006, Pubmed, Xenbase