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Ann Transl Med 2021 Sep 01;918:1397. doi: 10.21037/atm-21-1885.
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Kv3.1 channelopathy: a novel loss-of-function variant and the mechanistic basis of its clinical phenotypes.

Li X , Zheng Y , Li S , Nair U , Sun C , Zhao C , Lu J , Zhang VW , Maljevic S , Petrou S , Lin J .

BACKGROUND: KCNC1 encodes Kv3.1, a subunit of the Kv3 voltage-gated potassium channels. It is predominantly expressed in inhibitory GABAergic interneurons and cerebellar neurons. Kv3.1 channelopathy has been linked to a variety of human diseases including epilepsy, developmental delay, and ataxia. Characterization of structural and functional disturbances of this channel, and its relationship to a heterogenous group of clinical phenotypes, is a current topic of research. We herein characterize the clinical phenotype as well as the functional and structural consequences of the novel KCNC1 p.R317S variant. We further set out to explore the mechanistic basis for the spectrum of KCNC1 related channelopathies. METHODS: Variant was identified via whole-exome sequencing and its functional impact was determined using two-electrode voltage clamp recordings in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Homolog modeling and in silico structural analysis were performed on the p.R317S variant and other KCNC1 related variants. RESULTS: We identified a novel loss-of-function KCNC1 variant c.949C>A (p.R317S) presenting with symptoms similar to myoclonic epilepsy and ataxia due to potassium channel (MEAK), but with distinct radiological features. Functional analysis in the Xenopus laevis oocyte's expression system revealed that the current amplitudes were significantly decreased in the p.R317S variant compared to the wild type, indicating a dominant-negative effect. Atomic structural analysis of the KCNC1 related variants provided a possible mechanistic explanation for the heterogeneity in the clinical spectrum. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified the p.R317S loss-of-function variant in the KCNC1 gene, expanded the spectrum of potassium channelopathy and provided mechanistic insights into KCNC1 related disorders.

PubMed ID: 34733949
PMC ID: PMC8506712
Article link: Ann Transl Med

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: kcnc1 kcnc2 kcnc3 kcnc4
GO keywords: potassium ion transport

Disease Ontology terms: hereditary ataxia [+]
References [+] :
Aggarwal, Contribution of the S4 segment to gating charge in the Shaker K+ channel. 1996, Pubmed, Xenbase