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Zygote 2022 Apr 01;302:267-278. doi: 10.1017/S0967199421000630.
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Transmembrane H+ fluxes and the regulation of neural induction in Xenopus laevis.

Leung HC , Leclerc C , Moreau M , Shipley AM , Miller AL , Webb SE .

It has previously been reported that in ex vivo planar explants prepared from Xenopus laevis embryos, the intracellular pH (pHi) increases in cells of the dorsal ectoderm from stage 10.5 to 11.5 (i.e. 11-12.5 hpf). It was proposed that such increases (potentially due to H+ being extruded, sequestered, or buffered in some manner), play a role in regulating neural induction. Here, we used an extracellular ion-selective electrode to non-invasively measure H+ fluxes at eight locations around the equatorial circumference of intact X. laevis embryos between stages 9-12 (˜7-13.25 hpf). We showed that at stages 9-11, there was a small H+ efflux recorded from all the measuring positions. At stage 12 there was a small, but significant, increase in the efflux of H+ from most locations, but the efflux from the dorsal side of the embryo was significantly greater than from the other positions. Embryos were also treated from stages 9-12 with bafilomycin A1, to block the activity of the ATP-driven H+ pump. By stage 22 (24 hpf), these embryos displayed retarded development, arresting before the end of gastrulation and therefore did not display the usual anterior and neural structures, which were observed in the solvent-control embryos. In addition, expression of the early neural gene, Zic3, was absent in treated embryos compared with the solvent controls. Together, our new in vivo data corroborated and extended the earlier explant-derived report describing changes in pHi that were suggested to play a role during neural induction in X. laevis embryos.

PubMed ID: 34530953
Article link: Zygote

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: bmp4 cer1 chrd ctnnb1 nog zic3
GO keywords: ATPase activity [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions