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Genesis 2021 Oct 01;5910:e23447. doi: 10.1002/dvg.23447.
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Function of chromatin modifier Hmgn1 during neural crest and craniofacial development.

Ihewulezi C , Saint-Jeannet JP .

The neural crest is a dynamic embryonic structure that plays a major role in the formation of the vertebrate craniofacial skeleton. Neural crest formation is regulated by a complex sequence of events directed by a network of transcription factors working in concert with chromatin modifiers. The high mobility group nucleosome binding protein 1 (Hmgn1) is a nonhistone chromatin architectural protein, associated with transcriptionally active chromatin. Here we report the expression and function of Hmgn1 during Xenopus neural crest and craniofacial development. Hmgn1 is broadly expressed at the gastrula and neurula stages, and is enriched in the head region at the tailbud stage, especially in the eyes and the pharyngeal arches. Hmgn1 knockdown affected the expression of several neural crest specifiers, including sox8, sox10, foxd3, and twist1, while other genes (sox9 and snai2) were only marginally affected. The specificity of this phenotype was confirmed by rescue, where injection of Hmgn1 mRNA was able to restore sox10 expression in morphant embryos. The reduction in neural crest gene expression at the neurula stage in Hmgn1 morphant embryos correlated with a decreased number of sox10- and twist1-positive cells in the pharyngeal arches at the tailbud stage, and hypoplastic craniofacial cartilages at the tadpole stage. These results point to a novel role for Hmgn1 in the control of gene expression essential for neural crest and craniofacial development. Future work will investigate the precise mode of action of Hmgn1 in this context.

PubMed ID: 34478234
PMC ID: PMC8922215
Article link: Genesis
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: dmrta1 foxd3 foxe3 foxi4 foxi4.2 hmgn1 myc pax6 sf3b4 snai2 sox10 sox2 sox8 sox9 twist1
Antibodies: Myc Ab5
Morpholinos: hmgn1 MO1 sf3b4 MO3

Disease Ontology terms: microcephaly [+]
Phenotypes: Xla Wt + hmgn1 MO (Fig. 2 c- c1r1, d) [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Abuhatzira, The chromatin-binding protein HMGN1 regulates the expression of methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) and affects the behavior of mice. 2011, Pubmed