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Aquat Toxicol 2021 Aug 01;237:105902. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2021.105902.
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Bisphenols disrupt thyroid hormone (TH) signaling in the brain and affect TH-dependent brain development in Xenopus laevis.

Niu Y , Zhu M , Dong M , Li J , Li Y , Xiong Y , Liu P , Qin Z .

There is concern about adverse effects of thyroid hormone (TH) disrupting chemicals on TH-dependent brain development. Bisphenol A (BPA) and its analogues, such as bisphenol F (BPF), are known to have the potential to interfere with TH signaling, but whether they affect TH-dependent brain development is not yet well documented. Here, we conducted the T3-induced Xenopus laevis metamorphosis assay, a model for studying TH signaling disruption, to investigate the effects of BPA and BPF (10-1000 nM) on TH signaling in brains and subsequent brain development. While 48-hr treatment with 1 nM T3 dramatically upregulated TH-response gene expression in X. laevis brains at stage 52, 1000 and/or 100 nM BPA also caused significant transcriptional up-regulation of certain TH-response genes, whereas BPF had slighter effects, suggesting limited TH signaling disrupting activity of BPF in brains relative to BPA at the lack of TH. In the presence of 1 nM T3, 1000 and/or 100 nM of BPF as well as BPA antagonized T3-induced TH-response gene expression, whereas lower concentrations agonized T3 actions on certain TH-response genes, displaying an apparently biphasic effect on TH signaling. After 96 h exposure, T3 induced brain morphological remodeling coupled with cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation, whereas both BPA and BPF generally antagonized T3-induced changes in a concentration-dependent manner, with weak or no effects of bisphenol exposure alone. Overall, all results show that BPA and BPF interfered with TH signaling in Xenopus brains, especially in the presence of TH, and subsequently affected TH-dependent brain development. Given the evolutionary conservation of TH-dependent brain development among vertebrates, our findings from X. laevis warrant further studies to reveal potential influences of bisphenols on TH-dependent brain development in higher vertebrates.

PubMed ID: 34218114
Article link: Aquat Toxicol

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis