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Semin Cell Dev Biol 2020 Jan 01; doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2019.04.003.
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Regeneration enhancers: Starting a journey to unravel regulatory events in tissue regeneration.

Rodriguez AM , Kang J .

Regeneration, an ability to replace lost body parts, is widespread across animal species. While mammals poorly regenerate most tissues, teleost fish and urodele amphibians possess remarkable regenerative capacity. Earlier work demonstrated that genes driving regeneration are evolutionarily conserved, indicating that a key factor in diverse tissue regeneration is not the presence or absence of regeneration-driving genes but the mechanisms controlling activation of these genes after injury. Thus, understanding the regulatory events of tissue regeneration could provide the means for unlocking latent capacities for tissue regeneration. After injury, cells undergo extensive epigenetic changes to establish new transcriptional programs for tissue regeneration. Gene transcription in eukaryotes is a complicated process that requires specific interactions between trans-acting regulators and cis-regulatory DNA elements. Among cis-regulatory elements, enhancers are essential to control precise gene expression. Recently, multiple regeneration/injury-associated enhancers have been identified in several model organisms. In this review, we highlight recently discovered regeneration/injury enhancers and their specific characteristics. We also discuss how abnormal regulation of regeneration enhancers influences animal development and physiology. Investigation of regeneration enhancers potentially allows us to begin understanding the fundamental biology of tissue regeneration and inspires new solutions for manipulating regenerative ability.

PubMed ID: 30953740
PMC ID: PMC6783330
Article link: Semin Cell Dev Biol

Genes referenced: aldh1a2 bmp5 eed egr2 gdnf klf5 mbp ncam1 runx2 shh sox10 sox9 wt1
GO keywords: tissue regeneration

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Adam, Pioneer factors govern super-enhancer dynamics in stem cell plasticity and lineage choice. 2015, Pubmed