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Development 2003 May 01;13010:2129-38. doi: 10.1242/dev.00435.
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Role of glypican 4 in the regulation of convergent extension movements during gastrulation in Xenopus laevis.

Ohkawara B , Yamamoto TS , Tada M , Ueno N .

Coordinated morphogenetic cell movements during gastrulation are crucial for establishing embryonic axes in animals. Most recently, the non-canonical Wnt signaling cascade (PCP pathway) has been shown to regulate convergent extension movements in Xenopus and zebrafish. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are known as modulators of intercellular signaling, and are required for gastrulation movements in vertebrates. However, the function of HSPGs is poorly understood. We analyze the function of Xenopus glypican 4 (Xgly4), which is a member of membrane-associated HSPG family. In situ hybridization revealed that Xgly4 is expressed in the dorsal mesoderm and ectoderm during gastrulation. Reducing the levels of Xgly4 inhibits cell-membrane accumulation of Dishevelled (Dsh), which is a transducer of the Wnt signaling cascade, and thereby disturbs cell movements during gastrulation. Rescue analysis with different Dsh mutants and Wnt11 demonstrated that Xgly4 functions in the non-canonical Wnt/PCP pathway, but not in the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, to regulate gastrulation movements. We also provide evidence that the Xgly4 protein physically binds Wnt ligands. Therefore, our results suggest that Xgly4 functions as positive regulator in non-canonical Wnt/PCP signaling during gastrulation.

PubMed ID: 12668627
Article link: Development

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: bmp4 bmpr1a dvl1 dvl2 en2 fzd7 gal.2 gpc1 gpc4 myod1 nodal1 sdc2 tbx2 tbxt ventx1.2 wnt11 wnt11b wnt5a wnt8a
Morpholinos: gpc4 MO1

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