Click here to close Hello! We notice that you are using Internet Explorer, which is not supported by Xenbase and may cause the site to display incorrectly. We suggest using a current version of Chrome, FireFox, or Safari.
Dev Biol 2017 Jun 15;4262:219-235. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2016.03.005.
Show Gene links Show Anatomy links

Müller glia reactivity follows retinal injury despite the absence of the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene in Xenopus.

Martinez-De Luna RI , Ku RY , Aruck AM , Santiago F , Viczian AS , San Mauro D , Zuber ME .

Intermediate filament proteins are structural components of the cellular cytoskeleton with cell-type specific expression and function. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a type III intermediate filament protein and is up-regulated in glia of the nervous system in response to injury and during neurodegenerative diseases. In the retina, GFAP levels are dramatically increased in Müller glia and are thought to play a role in the extensive structural changes resulting in Müller cell hypertrophy and glial scar formation. In spite of similar changes to the morphology of Xenopus Müller cells following injury, we found that Xenopus lack a gfap gene. Other type III intermediate filament proteins were, however, significantly induced following rod photoreceptor ablation and retinal ganglion cell axotomy. The recently available X. tropicalis and X. laevis genomes indicate a small deletion most likely resulted in the loss of the gfap gene during anuran evolution. Lastly, a survey of representative species from all three extant amphibian orders including the Anura (frogs, toads), Caudata (salamanders, newts), and Gymnophiona (caecilians) suggests that deletion of the gfap locus occurred in the ancestor of all Anura after its divergence from the Caudata ancestor around 290 million years ago. Our results demonstrate that extensive changes in Müller cell morphology following retinal injury do not require GFAP in Xenopus, and other type III intermediate filament proteins may be involved in the gliotic response.

PubMed ID: 26996101
PMC ID: PMC5026855
Article link: Dev Biol
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: des.1 des.2 gnat1 ina myc nes prph rpe tfap2a vim vim.2
GO keywords: intermediate filament
Antibodies: GFAP Ab2 GFAP Ab3 Gnat1 Ab1 Muller Glia Ab1 Myc Ab12 Myc Ab6 Photoreceptors Ab1 Vim Ab1

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Abascal, ProtTest: selection of best-fit models of protein evolution. 2005, Pubmed