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Sci Rep 2016 Jan 22;6:23049. doi: 10.1038/srep23049.
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Noggin4 is a long-range inhibitor of Wnt8 signalling that regulates head development in Xenopus laevis.

Eroshkin FM , Nesterenko AM , Borodulin AV , Martynova NY , Ermakova GV , Gyoeva FK , Orlov EE , Belogurov AA , Lukyanov KA , Bayramov AV , Zaraisky AG .

Noggin4 is a Noggin family secreted protein whose molecular and physiological functions remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that in contrast to other Noggins, Xenopus laevis Noggin4 cannot antagonise BMP signalling; instead, it specifically binds to Wnt8 and inhibits the Wnt/β -catenin pathway. Live imaging demonstrated that Noggin4 diffusivity in embryonic tissues significantly exceeded that of other Noggins. Using the Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) assay and mathematical modelling, we directly estimated the affinity of Noggin4 for Wnt8 in living embryos and determined that Noggin4 fine-tune the Wnt8 posterior-to-anterior gradient. Our results suggest a role for Noggin4 as a unique, freely diffusing, long-range inhibitor of canonical Wnt signalling, thus explaining its ability to promote head development.

PubMed ID: 26973133
PMC ID: PMC4789793
Article link: Sci Rep

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: axin2 babam2 bmp1 bmp4 eef1a2 foxg1 fzd8 grap2 hoxa1 hoxb1 hoxd1 mcf2 mtor myc nodal nodal2 nodal3.2 nog nog2 nog4 odc1 otx2 pax6 psmd6 rax sdc2 sia1 smad1 spr wnt8a
Morpholinos: nog4 MO1 nog4 MO2 nog4 MO3

Phenotypes: Xla Wt + nog (fig.1.c) [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Axelrod, Mobility measurement by analysis of fluorescence photobleaching recovery kinetics. 1976, Pubmed