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Semin Cell Dev Biol 2016 Mar 01;51:80-91. doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2016.02.006.
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Making muscle: Morphogenetic movements and molecular mechanisms of myogenesis in Xenopus laevis.

Sabillo A , Ramirez J , Domingo CR .

Xenopus laevis offers unprecedented access to the intricacies of muscle development. The large, robust embryos make it ideal for manipulations at both the tissue and molecular level. In particular, this model system can be used to fate map early muscle progenitors, visualize cell behaviors associated with somitogenesis, and examine the role of signaling pathways that underlie induction, specification, and differentiation of muscle. Several characteristics that are unique to X. laevis include myogenic waves with distinct gene expression profiles and the late formation of dermomyotome and sclerotome. Furthermore, myogenesis in the metamorphosing frog is biphasic, facilitating regeneration studies. In this review, we describe the morphogenetic movements that shape the somites and discuss signaling and transcriptional regulation during muscle development and regeneration. With recent advances in gene editing tools, X. laevis remains a premier model organism for dissecting the complex mechanisms underlying the specification, cell behaviors, and formation of the musculature system.

PubMed ID: 26853935
PMC ID: PMC4798873
Article link: Semin Cell Dev Biol
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: bmp4 myf5 myf6 myod1 myog shh wnt1 wnt11 wnt3 wnt4 wnt6 wnt7a

References [+] :
Abou-Elhamd, Klhl31 attenuates β-catenin dependent Wnt signaling and regulates embryo myogenesis. 2015, Pubmed, Xenbase