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Dev Dyn 2015 Nov 01;24411:1415-26. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.24323.
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Sebox regulates mesoderm formation in early amphibian embryos.

Chen G , Tan R , Tao Q .

BACKGROUND: Mix/Bix genes are important regulators of mesendoderm formation during vertebrate embryogenesis. Sebox, an additional member of this gene family, has been implicated in endoderm formation during early embryogenesis in zebrafish. However, it remains unclear whether Sebox plays a unique role in early Xenopus embryos. RESULTS: In this study, we provide evidence that Sebox is uniquely required for the formation of mesoderm during early Xenopus embryogenesis. Sebox is dynamically expressed in the involuted mesoderm during gastrulation. It is activated by Nodal/Activin signaling and modulated by zygotic Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Overexpression of Sebox perturbs movements during convergent extension and inhibits the expression of mesodermal, but not endodermal, genes induced by Nodal/Activin signaling. Depletion of Sebox using a specific morpholino increases the expression of noncanonical wnt5a, wnt5b, and wnt11b. Depletion of Sebox also up-regulates the expression of pcdh8.2, a paraxial mesoderm-specific protocadherin, in a Wnt11B-dependent manner. Sebox morphants display reduced development of the head and notochord. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings illustrate that Sebox, a unique member of the Mix/Bix gene family, functions downstream of Nodal/Activin signaling and is required for the proper expression of noncanonical Wnt ligands and the normal development of mesoderm in Xenopus.

PubMed ID: 26285158
Article link: Dev Dyn

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: acvr2a bix1.3 cer1 chrd.1 ctnnb1 gsc klf6 mixer mrc1 nodal1 odc1 pcdh8 pcdh8.2 sebox st14 szl tbxt vegt wnt11b wnt5a wnt5b wnt8a
Morpholinos: ctnnb1 MO1 sebox MO1 wnt11b MO4 wnt8a MO1

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