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PLoS One 2013 Jul 01;87:e69866. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069866.
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Expression and functional characterization of Xhmg-at-hook genes in Xenopus laevis.

Macrì S , Sgarra R , Ros G , Maurizio E , Zammitti S , Milani O , Onorati M , Vignali R , Manfioletti G .

High Mobility Group A proteins (HMGA1 and HMGA2) are architectural nuclear factors involved in development, cell differentiation, and cancer formation and progression. Here we report the cloning, developmental expression and functional analysis of a new multi-AT-hook factor in Xenopus laevis (XHMG-AT-hook) that exists in three different isoforms. Xhmg-at-hook1 and 3 isoforms, but not isoform 2, are expressed throughout the entire development of Xenopus, both in the maternal and zygotic phase. Localized transcripts are present in the animal pole in the early maternal phase; during the zygotic phase, mRNA can be detected in the developing central nervous system (CNS), including the eye, and in the neural crest. We show evidence that XHMG-AT-hook proteins differ from typical HMGA proteins in terms of their properties in DNA binding and in protein/protein interaction. Finally, we provide evidence that they are involved in early CNS development and in neural crest differentiation.

PubMed ID: 23936116
PMC ID: PMC3723657
Article link: PLoS One

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: hook1 nrp1 odc1 otx2 slc12a3 twist1
GO keywords: central nervous system development [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Aravind, AT-hook motifs identified in a wide variety of DNA-binding proteins. 1998, Pubmed