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Dev Genes Evol 1996 Dec 01;2065:333-6. doi: 10.1007/s004270050060.
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Regulated expression of the retinoblastoma gene product by fibroblast growth factor but not by activin during mesoderm induction in Xenopus.

Greenland J , Gillespie LL .

The retinoblastoma (RB) gene is a tumor suppressor gene that plays an important role in cell cycle arrest and in the terminal differentiation of skeletal myoblasts. Differentiation into muscle occurs in Xenopus embryo explants during mesoderm induction by fibroblast growth factor (FGF) or activin A. We examined expression of the RB gene product (pRB) during mesoderm induction in vivo and in vitro. We show that hypo- and hyper-phosphorylated forms of pRB are present during early development and that expression of both forms increases significantly during the blastula stage, concomitant with mesoderm induction. Further investigation revealed that pRB is enriched in the presumptive mesoderm of the blastula stage embryo. In animal cap explants induced by Xenopus bFGF (XbFGF), pRB expression levels increased approximately tenfold while no increase was observed in explants induced by activin. However, when explants were induced by XbFGF in the presence of sodium orthovanadate, a compound previously shown to synergize with FGF to produce more dorsal "activin-like" inductions than FGF alone, only a slight increase in pRB expression was observed. Furthermore, upregulation of pRB during mesoderm induction in vitro displayed an inverse correlation with expression of XFKH1, a marker for notochord. These results suggest that pRB may be important for patterning along the dorsoventral axis.

PubMed ID: 24173591
Article link: Dev Genes Evol

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: fgf2 foxa4 inhba