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XB-ART-45972
Science 2012 Oct 26;3386106:520-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1228394.
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The APC/C inhibitor XErp1/Emi2 is essential for Xenopus early embryonic divisions.

Tischer T , Hörmanseder E , Mayer TU .


Abstract
Mitotic divisions result from the oscillating activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1). Cdk1 activity is terminated by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a ubiquitin ligase that targets cyclin B for destruction. In somatic divisions, the early mitotic inhibitor 1 (Emi1) and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) regulate cell cycle progression by inhibiting the APC/C. Early embryonic divisions lack these APC/C-inhibitory components, which raises the question of how those cycles are controlled. We found that the APC/C-inhibitory activity of XErp1 (also known as Emi2) was essential for early divisions in Xenopus embryos. Loss of XErp1 resulted in untimely destruction of APC/C substrates and embryonic lethality. XErp1's APC/C-inhibitory function was negatively regulated by Cdk1 and positively by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Thus, Cdk1 and PP2A operate at the core of early mitotic cell cycles by antagonistically controlling XErp1 activity, which results in oscillating APC/C activity.

PubMed ID: 23019610
Article link: Science


Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: cdc27 cdk1 fbxo43 ptpa
Morpholinos: fbxo43 MO1 fbxo43 MO2