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Development 2012 Jul 01;13914:2557-65. doi: 10.1242/dev.078774.
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Transient downregulation of Bmp signalling induces extra limbs in vertebrates.

Christen B , Rodrigues AM , Monasterio MB , Roig CF , Izpisua Belmonte JC .

Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signalling has been implicated in setting up dorsoventral patterning of the vertebrate limb and in its outgrowth. Here, we present evidence that Bmp signalling or, more precisely, its inhibition also plays a role in limb and fin bud initiation. Temporary inhibition of Bmp signalling either by overexpression of noggin or using a synthetic Bmp inhibitor is sufficient to induce extra limbs in the Xenopus tadpole or exogenous fins in the Danio rerio embryo, respectively. We further show that Bmp signalling acts in parallel with retinoic acid signalling, possibly by inhibiting the known limb-inducing gene wnt2ba.

PubMed ID: 22675213
Article link: Development

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: alk bmp2 bmp4 bmp7.1 en1 fgf10 fgf8 galk1 galk2 lmx1a lmx1b.1 nog smad1 smad3 sp8 wnt2b wnt3a wnt7a
Antibodies: Smad1 Ab7 Smad2 Ab4 Tuba4b Ab8

Phenotypes: Xla.Tg(hsp70:nog,cryga:GFP) + HS (A) [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions