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Dev Dyn 2012 May 01;2415:995-1007. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.23780.
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Myogenic waves and myogenic programs during Xenopus embryonic myogenesis.

Della Gaspera B , Armand AS , Sequeira I , Chesneau A , Mazabraud A , Lécolle S , Charbonnier F , Chanoine C .

Although Xenopus is a key model organism in developmental biology, little is known about the myotome formation in this species. Here, we assessed the expression of myogenic regulatory factors of the Myod family (MRFs) during embryonic development and revealed distinct MRF programs.The expression pattern of each MRF during embryonic development highlights three successive myogenic waves. We showed that a first median and lateral myogenesis initiates before dermomyotome formation: the median cell population expresses Myf5, Myod, and Mrf4, whereas the lateral one expresses Myod, moderate levels of Myogenin and Mrf4. The second wave of myoblasts arising from the dermomyotome is characterized by the full MRF program expression, with high levels of Myogenin. The third wave is revealed by Myf5 expression in the myotome and could contribute to the formation of plurinucleated fibers at larval stages. Furthermore, Myf5- or Myod-expressing anlagen are identified in craniofacial myogenesis.The first median and lateral myogenesis and their associated MRF programs have probably disappeared in mammals. However, some aspects of Xenopus myogenesis have been conserved such as the development of somitic muscles by successive myogenic waves and the existence of Myf5-dependent and -independent lineages.

PubMed ID: 22434732
Article link: Dev Dyn

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: actc1 chrd chrd.2 ckm des.1 des.2 egr2 mespb myf5 myf6 myh2 myh4 myod1 myog myrf pax7 pax8 pitx2 snai2 tbx1

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