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J Genet Genomics 2011 Dec 20;3812:577-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jgg.2011.10.004.
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Evolution of vertebrate central nervous system is accompanied by novel expression changes of duplicate genes.

Chen Y , Ding Y , Zhang Z , Wang W , Chen JY , Ueno N , Mao B .

The evolution of the central nervous system (CNS) is one of the most striking changes during the transition from invertebrates to vertebrates. As a major source of genetic novelties, gene duplication might play an important role in the functional innovation of vertebrate CNS. In this study, we focused on a group of CNS-biased genes that duplicated during early vertebrate evolution. We investigated the tempo-spatial expression patterns of 33 duplicate gene families and their orthologs during the embryonic development of the vertebrate Xenopus laevis and the cephalochordate Brachiostoma belcheri. Almost all the identified duplicate genes are differentially expressed in the CNS in Xenopus embryos, and more than 50% and 30% duplicate genes are expressed in the telencephalon and mid-hindbrain boundary, respectively, which are mostly considered as two innovations in the vertebrate CNS. Interestingly, more than 50% of the amphioxus orthologs do not show apparent expression in the CNS in amphioxus embryos as detected by in situ hybridization, indicating that some of the vertebrate CNS-biased duplicate genes might arise from non-CNS genes in invertebrates. Our data accentuate the functional contribution of gene duplication in the CNS evolution of vertebrate and uncover an invertebrate non-CNS history for some vertebrate CNS-biased duplicate genes.

PubMed ID: 22196400
Article link: J Genet Genomics

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: abi1 abi2 aldoa aldob aldoc arhgef1 arhgef11 arhgef12 atp6v1c1 atp6v1c2 cyria cyrib dkk1 dkk2 eeig1 eeig2 elapor1 elapor2 gab1 gab2 gab3 gnas htra1 htra4 kcnn1 kcnn2 lpcat1 lpcat2 lpcat4 mboat2 ncoa1 ncoa2 ncoa3 nucb1 nucb2 otub1 otub2 pcnx1 pcnx4 pla2g12a pla2g12b ppp3ca prkag1 prkag2 prkag3 pura purb purg rac1 ralgds rcan1 rcan2 rgl2 rgl3 rtn1 rtn2 rtn3 rtn4 samd4a samd4b scrn1 scrn2 scrn3 spred1 spred2 spred3 ssbp1 ssbp2 ssbp3 ssbp4 stau1 stau2 syn1 syn2 syn3 syngr1 syngr2 syngr3 tp63 tprg1 tprg1l usp53 usp54 vps26a vps26b zmym2 zmym3

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