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Dev Biol 2010 Oct 15;3462:170-80. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2010.07.028.
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Paraxial T-box genes, Tbx6 and Tbx1, are required for cranial chondrogenesis and myogenesis.

Tazumi S , Yabe S , Uchiyama H .

We previously reported that Tbx6, a T-box transcription factor, is required for the differentiation of ventral body wall muscle and for segment formation and somitic muscle differentiation. Here, we show that Tbx6 is also involved, at later stages, in cartilage differentiation from the cranial neural crest and head muscle development. In Tbx6 knockdown embryos, the cranial neural crest was shown to be correctly induced at the border of the neural plate and migrated in a slightly delayed manner, but finally reached positions in the pharyngeal arches nearly similar to those in the normal embryos as revealed by in situ hybridization and the neural crest-transplantation experiments. However, the neural crest cells failed to maintain Sox9 expression. Tbx6 knockdown also reduced the expression of Tbx1, another T-box gene expressed in more anterior paraxial structures. Tbx1 knockdown caused phenotypes milder but similar to those of Tbx6 morphants, including reduced formation of head muscles and cartilages, and attenuated Sox9 expression. Furthermore, the phenotypes caused by Tbx6 knockdown were partially rescued by Tbx1 plasmid injection. These results suggest that Tbx6 is involved in the cranial cartilage and head muscle development by regulating anterior paraxial genes such as Tbx1 and Sox9.

PubMed ID: 20692252
Article link: Dev Biol

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: fgf8 fzd7 gal.2 myf5 myod1 pcdh18 pcdh8l snai2 sox9 tbx1 tbx2 tbx6 wnt11 wnt11b wnt8a
GO keywords: neural crest cell development [+]
Antibodies: Somite Ab1
Morpholinos: tbx1 MO4 tbx6 MO1

Disease Ontology terms: DiGeorge syndrome

Article Images: [+] show captions