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Chromosome Res 2009 Jan 01;172:165-84. doi: 10.1007/s10577-008-9015-9.
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Lampbrush chromosomes enable study of cohesin dynamics.

Austin C , Novikova N , Guacci V , Bellini M .

The lampbrush chromosomes present in the nuclei of amphibian oocytes offer unique biological approaches for study of the mechanisms that regulate chromatin structure with high spatial resolution. We discuss fundamental aspects of the remarkable organization and plasticity exhibited by lampbrush chromosomes. We then utilize lampbrush chromosomes to characterize the chromosomal distribution and dynamics of cohesin, the four-protein complex (RAD21/MCD1/SCC1, SMC1, SMC3, SCC3/SA2) responsible for sister chromatid cohesion. We find that endogenous SMC3 and newly expressed hRAD21 co-localize on chromosomal axes, sites where sister chromatids are tightly paired. We present evidence suggesting that hRAD21 recruitment to lampbrush chromosomes is modulated by chromosomal SMC1 and SMC3. Notably, using a technique for de novo chromosome assembly, we demonstrate that both SMC3 and hRAD21 are recruited to single, unreplicated lampbrush chromatids. Finally, we used our novel method of analyzing the oocyte nucleus under oil combined with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, to provide direct evidence that cohesin is highly dynamic at discrete, condensed chromosomal regions. Collectively, these data demonstrate that lampbrush chromosomes provide a unique and powerful tool for combining biochemical and cytological analyses for dissection of complex chromosomal processes.

PubMed ID: 19308699
Article link: Chromosome Res
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: smc3
Antibodies: Coil Ab2 Ncapd2 Ab1

References [+] :
Alexandru, Phosphorylation of the cohesin subunit Scc1 by Polo/Cdc5 kinase regulates sister chromatid separation in yeast. 2001, Pubmed