XB-ART-35785Anesthesiology 2007 May 01;1065:967-76. doi: 10.1080/09687860600942534.
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Molecular interaction of droperidol with human ether-a-go-go-related gene channels: prolongation of action potential duration without inducing early afterdepolarization.
BACKGROUND: The cardiac safety of droperidol given at antiemetic doses is a matter of debate. Although droperidol potently inhibits human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) channels, the molecular mode of this interaction is unknown. The role of amino acid residues typically mediating high-affinity block of HERG channels is unclear. It is furthermore unresolved whether droperidol at antiemetic concentrations induces action potential prolongation and arrhythmogenic early afterdepolarizations in cardiac myocytes. METHODS: Molecular mechanisms of HERG current inhibition by droperidol were established using two-electrode voltage clamp recordings of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing wild-type and mutant channels. The mutants T623A, S624A, V625A, Y652A, and F656A were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. The effect of droperidol on action potentials was investigated in cardiac myocytes isolated from guinea pig hearts using the patch clamp technique. RESULTS: Droperidol inhibited currents through HERG wild-type channels with a concentration of half-maximal inhibition of 0.6-0.9 microM. Droperidol shifted the channel activation and the steady state inactivation toward negative potentials while channel deactivation was not affected. Current inhibition increased with membrane potential and with increasing duration of current activation. Inhibition of HERG channels was similarly reduced by all mutations. Droperidol at concentrations between 5 and 100 nM prolonged whereas concentrations greater than 300 nm shortened action potentials. Early afterdepolarizations were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: Droperidol is a high-affinity blocker of HERG channels. Amino acid residues typically involved in high-affinity block mediate droperidol effects. Patch clamp results and computational modeling allow the hypothesis that interaction with calcium currents may explain why droperidol at antiemetic concentrations prolongs the action potential without inducing early afterdepolarizations.
PubMed ID: 17457128
Article link: Anesthesiology
Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: gnao1 kcnh1 kcnh2