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Cell Mol Neurobiol 1985 Jun 01;51-2:5-34. doi: 10.1007/bf00711083.
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Eye-specific segregation of optic afferents in mammals, fish, and frogs: the role of activity.

Schmidt JT , Tieman SB .

Eye-specific patches or stripes normally develop in the visual cortex and superior colliculus of many (but not all) mammals and are also formed, after surgically produced binocular innervation, in the optic tectum of fish and frogs. The segregation of ocular dominance patches or columns has been studied using a variety of anatomical pathway-tracing techniques, by electrophysiological recording of postsynaptic units or field potentials, and by the 2-deoxyglucose method following visual stimulation of only one eye. In the tectum of both fish and frogs and in the cortex and colliculus of mammals, eye-specific patches develop from initially diffuse, overlapping projections. Of the various mechanisms that might cause such segregation, the evidence favors an activity-dependent process that stabilizes synapses from the same eye because of their correlated activity. First, several environmental manipulations affect the segregation of afferents in visual cortex: strabismus and alternate monocular exposure apparently enhance segregation, whereas dark rearing slows the segregation process, and monocular deprivation causes the experienced eye to form larger patches at the expense of those of the deprived eye. Second, blocking activity in both eyes is effective in preventing the segregation both in the tectum of fish and frog and in the visual cortex of cat. With the eyes blocked, alternate stimulation of the optic nerves permits the segregation of ocular dominance, at least onto single cells in the cat visual cortex. These findings are discussed in terms of an activity-dependent stabilization of those synapses having correlated activity (those from neighboring ganglion cells within one eye) but not of those lacking correlated activity (those from left and right eyes). We suggest that the eye-specific patches represent a compromise between total segregation of the projections from the two eyes and the formation of a single continuous retinotopic map across the surface of the cortex or tectum.

PubMed ID: 3928161
Article link: Cell Mol Neurobiol
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: cat.2 vangl2

References [+] :
Archer, Abnormal development of kitten retino-geniculate connectivity in the absence of action potentials. 1982, Pubmed